|What should become megacities in 30 years|
|One of themes which will be discussed on the Petersburg economic forum, - new shape of the Russian and European cities. On statistics, 73 % of the population of Russia now lives in cities (as a whole on the world - 50 %). And urbanistic processes accrue. About what future waits the Russian cities, Online812 the participant of a forum, the director of Fund " Centre of strategic development " has told Northwest " " Vladimir КНЯГИНИН.|
- in St. Petersburg the heavy industry is gradually superseded from city, but IT-experts entice in технопарки. It can have an effect on housing predilections of the townspeople?
- if to mean резервации for the programmers, similar to that in New Delhi, yes. Though practice shows, that in the best way these guys of feel, not when them place in an incubator and when they reconstruct under themselves that quarter where have lodged. Such has taken place, for example, in city of Svetlogorske where experts in computer games now live. They have equipped to themselves there " a slice of life ". The type of activity has huge value. Recently to me have told, that in Cherepovets up to the end 80 most prestigious apartments were that were a stone's throw away from metallurgical combine. No, I understand, that there it was good to live in 50th years and the ambassador (in all 30 awakened hooter, but then it(him) have cancelled as at all alarm clocks have appeared at last). But now other trades, other attitude(relation) to life, other people. Accordingly varies and престижность areas and type of building.
- and the external shape of city, means, too should exchange.
- in general any city economy means, that the person should be any time in city. City spaces now under the design decisions are not capable to compete to design of premises(rooms). At us very weak industrial design, and the main building in the majority of country towns is a glass shed under the name "shopping center". That in America is under construction only behind city.
- why in Russia the city design appeared on last place?
- design have started to neglect in 60, at Хрущеве. It is remembered, there was such well-known discussion about kitchen. At the end of 60 in Moscow there passed an exhibition of the American design on which represented, in particular, kitchen of a typical American house - big, with the built - in engineering. Хрущев has told then: it it is not necessary for us, at us the person simply sleeps in an apartment, and eats and will spend time in other places. Actually, only then, when the industry was reoriented on the consumer, at us have for the first time passed(missed) the whole class of design decisions. The concept of design has penetrated into Russia smuggling, through any British magazines. Then, in 90th years, we have passed(missed) the second wave as with transition to market economy to us was not up to that. The industry was compressed, and the raw economy did not demand refined промдизайна. And only recently Минэкономразвития has somehow attended to this question, three years the program of support of industrial design back was developed. Probably, it then will have an effect on external shape of our settlements.
- there are examples of correct modern design decisions of city quarters?
- examples of complex design for all quarter while a little. There are in Milan some streets which remind design photos. There in streets have established design objects which carry out practical function, and the passer - by pays attention to them, instead of on houses.
- what objects?
- it can be any trifle like modern benches which now establish in parkways in Great Novgorod. There спинка it is not rounded, and on the contrary, it is pointed, that teenagers did not sit on спинке, having put legs on seats. Most likely, this idea was peeped at someone from the western designers, because there too with problems with teenagers.
- means, the main thing that all beautiful was functional?
- and all functional - had the unique person. In New York have put round aerials of broadband access in интернет which at the same time are the solar batteries having relaying installations. They are executed in the form of camomiles. It not art in high sense, but precisely design decisions which set to plastic.
- at our life we can see, how the shape of the Russian cities varies?
- in 1939 in New York well-known exhibition General Motors "Футурама" in honour of which have named then a known cartoon film has passed. In pavilion in size about a football field represented city of the future - presumably 1960. And so, our cities - not only Russian, but the majority American and European - just now began to correspond(meet) to this picture approximately.
- megacities should vary differently, than small cities?
- the more city, the радикальней there should be a decision. It is possible to construct in захолустье huge skyscrapers which, certainly, will draw attention, but mice there will live. Skyscrapers will appear there where, first, there are global companies, second, very expensive(dear) ground. In general(common), it not our variant, and faster дубайский. That the European city comparable to St. Petersburg, significantly has raised(increased) the appeal due to new object, this object should be unique apply for leadership if not world(global), European scale.
- the unique object is a unique way to be allocated?
- Таллин tries to join in hierarchy of the European capitals and enter club of intellectual cities of the world. All management there is fastened on electronics, starting(beginning) from consumer services and finishing contacts to authority propertying which are more and more displaced in интернет. The whole areas are modernized.
- and how it has an effect for appearance of city?
- goes реновация the Soviet building, for example, in Tallinn park Kadriorg. In old quarters accurately cut new houses. Add new infrastructures - like green lawns and bicycle pathes, give a priority to public transport. It also is the complex approach. It is not enough to reconstruct one building, it only will show, that his(its) owner has money, and all.
Reception of hyperscale object - a way suitable only for the big cities. Other cities restore historical building, almost doing(making) a model of historical city. And it is enough to some to strengthen of that is. In Russia the director of " the Clear Glade " Vladimir Thick so develops Крапивну. There was a same attempt with Торжком: it(he) simultaneously both a monument of town-planning, and industrial small town.
But notice: to think up and introduce something special we can not yet, we only capitalize a history. Though is not present - in Perm attempt to open the largest in the country a museum of the modern art is undertaken. But it while exceptions. And in Europe city which to find uniqueness, builds something most - most. The biggest park of dinosaurs at the Atlantic coast. Or the largest in Eurasia an oceanarium.
- and can, and such glory is not necessary for city dwellers.
- certainly, motivation of people which do not aspire in megacities, and want to live in small cities, too it is necessary to take into account. Besides, she(it) specially should be studied to make small cities attractive to people which landscapes are important, unity with a nature.
- foreign experience of reorganization of depressive areas is present?
- unless in East Germany which will carry out(spend) now reconstruction of the Soviet industrial heritage. Two years back they showed the achievements at an exhibition in the Peter and Paul Fortress. And the French could not recover the panel suburbs, and in a result of them migrants have occupied. The Shanghai authorities earlier сносили old houses the whole quarters, and now have made the decision, something to keep and make реновацию.
- and how in the future will look элитные quarters?
- it is a complex(difficult) question. First, not clear, where they will be located. We admit(allow), in New York, in expensive(dear) streets Manhettena recently have decided to give ground floors under social habitation, to students, pensioners. It becomes simple differently area a place for dream of rich people, in it(him) there will be no life, the reasonable prices and a variety of city services. We shall take Рублевку. First millionaires were occupied there, and settlements represented the extended language fenced резерваций along road. And then there - втридорога - it was necessary to stretch elements of city life: restaurants, shops, concert platforms, sports objects.
As to mass building - one of the important questions is the question of resources and their effective utilization. In some years all new buildings should receive the certificate энергоэффективности. In Europe and USA are entered standards ресурсоэффективности to which there should correspond(meet) buildings. There are serious conversations that each owner of a building will pay the tax to emission окисей carbon.
- and it will result in what consequences?
- the cheapest at sale and the most dear(expensive) in operation appears the real estate which is not appropriate to these standards. Present, that will be, if at us will put counters on all: warmly, gas, water... In Leningrad region there were cases when people, having the identical area of an apartment, received very different accounts on municipal services because one house received more than heat, and another - is less. Thus in the first house inhabitants all the same мерзли as all heat on the spot left on street. The old house, holey pipes, cracks in walls... But even in St. Petersburg there are already houses with zero issue of heat, with very effective энергосберегающими decisions - apartments in such houses and will cost more dearly(expensively). But as cost of a building is in a new fashion defined(determined), it becomes clear, when in all houses intellectual counters will appear, and it is necessary to pay for each drop of water and each degree of temperature.
- and what will represent streets?
- the first component - aesthetic. The street should be so is constructed to stay on it(her) it was more interesting, than in front of the TV. The second making - ecology and health. The person daily is obliged to move time in the street. Already now many architects project streets so that is guaranteed the healthy specification was carried out is 7000 steps per day.
- five kilometers!
- that during all way process of walking that it was interesting to look on the parties(sides) liked and it was not necessary to breathe dirty air to become covered by a dust and to burn on the sun. The arrangement of buildings, their external shape, parks or even narrow landings of trees here is important. Not speaking about that there was no salt in the winter.
- all together - unless such is possible?
- it is possible to begin with выделенок for bicycles and with business streets on which, maybe, there is not enough greens, but they are interesting in themselves. In the West trading - ритейл-стрит are organized so, that you on it(her) want to pass, instead of to go. It will be necessary to throw the machine on parking... But also to buy, certainly, there it is necessary not the large-sized goods: for him(it) there are shops - warehouses on surburbs.
- what is " qualitative city "?
- Ресурсоэффективный. Safe. Healthy. Open. Open - in sense of mentality of the townspeople, agreeable to accept new, and accessible due to modern transport communications. Here high-speed highways should us help. And in general the concept sends " qualitative city " also to democratic control systems. Not without reason Balts do(make) such investments in the electronic government, the purpose of these investments is not in itself development of technologies, and qualitative change of mutual relation between the inhabitant and the city government. The government should be maximum transparent.
Nina АСТАФЬЕВА, a photo club.foto.ru
//* A source of the information: City - 812, 14.06.10